The Difference Between Bergamot and Bee Balm

Posted on: May 18th, 2015 by
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Bergamot or Bee Balm? Photo Credit: Fotolia

Bergamot or Bee Balm? Photo Credit: Fotolia

As many aromatherapists know, identifying some plant species can be confusing. Many plants have interchangeable or similar common English names; one such example is bergamot. Here is a quick look at the difference between bergamot (the fruit) and bergamot (the herb).

Botanical Profile of Bergamot (Fruit)

The citrus fruit bergamot is known by the botanical name of Citrus bergamia or Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia. It belongs to the Rutaceae plant family and possesses many of the common characteristics of the family. The small tree has smooth, oval leaves, familiar to many of the citrus trees within this plant family. It bears a fruit which is small and round in shape and matures from green to yellow in color. Bergamot fruit resembles a small orange in appearance, except for the color.

Botanical Profile of Bergamot (Herb)

The herb bergamot is known by the botanical name of Monarda didyma. It is commonly referred to by its English name of bergamot or bee balm (because of its tendency to attract bees). Bee balm belongs to the Lamiaceae plant family and shares more characteristics in common with its fellow plant family members – such as peppermint, lavender, and sage – than that of its fruity namesake bergamot.

Bee balm is a herb native to the woodlands of North America. It bears flowers of scarlet, pink, white or purple and has green, oval leaves. The leaves have a red-colored vein running through them. The reason that bee balm is also given the name bergamot is that the aroma reminded the botanist, Dr Nicholas Mondares – whose name was given to the Latin name of the plant, Mondara – of the citrus aroma of bergamot (Citrus bergamia).

Uses of Bergamot (Fruit)

The citrus fruit bergamot is used as an essential oil in aromatherapy. It has been used in Italian folk medicine for many years. The essential oil is extracted by cold expression from the peel of the fruit. It has a sweet-fruity aroma and can be blended with other citrus essential oils for use, in addition to jasmine, lavender, and violet. Bergamot essential oil contains monoterpenes, esters, and alcohols.

Use bergamot essential oil for various types of skincare and skin problems (acne, eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, oily skin), digestive issues, colds, flu, anxiety and depression. It is an uplifting essential oil with a “sunny” aroma.

However, bergamot essential oil contains bergapten; this makes the oil photo-toxic and should not be used in sunlight or with other forms of ultra-violet light (such as tanning units). As with all essential oils, always dilute bergamot essential oil in a base oil or lotion before applying to the skin.

Uses of Bergamot (Herb)

The herb bergamot is not used as an essential oil in aromatherapy practice but it does have therapeutic properties for herbal medicine practice. The leaf of bee balm is used as an infusion in tea to help in the relief of insomnia, menstrual pain, nausea, and flatulence. A fresh leaf of bee balm infused with China tea will produce a flavor of Earl Grey Tea. Steam inhalation of the herb bee balm is helpful for sore throats and catarrh.

The Native American Indians used the wild purple bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) for both cold and bronchial difficulties, due to the presence of thymol, which acts as an antiseptic. Scarlet bee balm (Monarda didyma) was used to make a tea for digestion; as it grew by the Oswego river, it commonly became known as Oswego tea. The flowering top of bee balm was also boiled by both the Ponca and Omaha Indians to make a hair oil.

The Oswaga Indians used bee balm as a drink infusion; in 1773, bee balm became popular in New England as a tea substitute after the Boston Tea Party. Today, it also has many other culinary uses including use in salads, stuffings and pork, as well as jams, jellies and home made lemonades. In the garden, it can be very aromatic if planted in places where it will be touched, releasing fragrance into the air.

Learn More About Citrus Essential Oils with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you would like to learn more about citrus essential oils, such as bergamot, consider one of the Sedona Aromatherapie aromatherapy home study courses. To learn more, visit the courses home page.

References:

  • Bremness, Lesley 1988 The Complete Book of Herbs London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd

  • Lawless, Julia 2001 The Aromatherapy Garden London: Kyle Cathie Ltd

  • Lawless, Julia 1995 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils UK: Thorsons

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, a published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), owner of an aromatherapy business, and Chief Editor of the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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Book Interview: Harvest to Hydrosol by Ann Harman

Posted on: May 11th, 2015 by
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Harvest to Hydrosol by Ann Harman: Used with Author's Permission

Harvest to Hydrosol by Ann Harman: Used with Author's Permission

This article originally appeared in the NAHA Journal (Spring 2015.1) and is re-published here according to the NAHA Writer Guidelines 2015 copyright statement. If you would like to become a member of NAHA and enjoy more articles like this, please visit the NAHA website.

As I worked on editing this particular book with Ann Harman, I know that this journey has been a long one, and I am excited that Ann took time out of her busy schedule to give me some background information on the book. Here is a closer look at her book Harvest to Hydrosol.

Brief Overview of Harvest to Hydrosol by Sharon Falsetto

Harvest to Hydrosol is an unique book. To my knowledge, there isn’t another book like it currently on the market – and it is written by an “expert distiller” in the field, giving you confidence in the information contained within it. Essentially, the book is a “handbook,” or step-by-step guide to distilling your own hydrosols – and you don’t need a lot of equipment, a large amount of land, or plant material to get started.

Harvest to Hydrosol discusses the basics – from how to choose your still, to the different types of distillation, to how to still with success. There is also detailed information on the plants themselves – including common plant profiles, when to harvest, and chemotypes. Finally, Harman’s knowledge and years of experience shines through with the inclusion of Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data, compiled from her own distillations over the years. If you want to know how to use your hydrosol, after you’ve distilled it, there is also a quick look at some of the uses of hydrosols.

My brief overview of Harvest to Hydrosol does not do the book justice, given the wealth of information that it contains. All I can say is – pick up a copy! But not before you read what the author, Ann Harman, has to say about her inspiration for writing the book, and her journey into publishing it.

A big thank you to Ann for her time taken for this interview.

Interview with Ann Harman

  • What was the inspiration behind writing the book?

I wanted others to experience this wonderful craft. The waters captivated me from the very start. After experiencing hydrosols made in the traditional way I wanted to revive that ancient art and put it back in the hands of everyday folk. The waters are very powerful, yet very delicate at the same time. I believe that the waters you make yourself, or purchase fresh, are the most therapeutic. The “Act of distillation is simple, the Art of distillation is a journey” and one should not be afraid to give it a go!

  • Who have been the most influential people in helping you achieve this goal – and why? 

I couldn’t have completed this venture without my sweetheart John Booth. John kept me going when I wanted to give up, he encouraged me and supported me throughout the process. James Green was the first person to introduce me to the distillate waters at a United Plant Savers conference nearly twenty years ago. He doesn’t know what he started! Jeanne Rose has been my mentor for over sixteen years; she taught me the basics of distillation, encouraged me through my experiments, and pushed me to go further. She also introduced me to some of the old texts; we are both bibliophiles by nature. Once I started reading the ancient texts I wanted to experiment with the old recipes. I wouldn’t have been able to share all of this knowledge without the encouragement of my aromatherapy friends who gave me the confidence to share my passion.

  • How long did it take you to complete the book – from conception to publication? What was the most difficult part of this journey? 

The conception was there from the very start; but it took nearly two years to get pen to paper, editing, design and production completed. I chose to self-publish; I didn’t want others to have control over such a personal project. It was a huge emotional and financial risk but I think it will be worth it. The online publishers took too much away, in my opinion, so I found a wonderful book designer who helped me with production and printing. I reached out to the aromatherapy community and found two editors, Sharon Falsetto, and one of my students, Caryn Summers, to help me get the words to flow smoothly. All the marketing will be up to myself and the aromatherapy community.

  • What was the overall goal of the book? 

I wanted to take the fear out of distillation and show people that it can be as simple or difficult as you make it. You don’t have to invest $20,000 on a commercial still in order to make hydrosols and essential oils at home with plants you grow yourself. I hope that if one chooses to distill their own distillate waters they will find a whole new modality in their home medicine chest. These waters are gentle, powerful healing products and are accessible with a relatively small investment and time.

  • Why do you prefer to distill hydrosols on copper stills? What is the attraction/benefit of copper stills?

I have an affinity for copper and I love the hydrosols that are distilled on copper. There is preliminary evidence that the copper that remains in the hydrosol after distillation may help to preserve them. I teach distillation workshops and we do side-by-side distillations on stainless stills and copper stills. I haven’t had a student yet who prefers the distillate from the stainless stills. There is something special about the distillates, perhaps not measurable with our current instruments, but special nonetheless.

  • Do you see interest in hydrosols growing in the future? 

I think that as more and more people experience what a hydrosol truly can be, their popularity will grow and grow. Think about the essential oil industry and how some of us vintage herbalists were introduced to low quality essential oils many, many years ago. Quality oils were not readily available as they are today so we didn’t know there was something better. It is the same with hydrosols, most have only experienced the byproducts of the essential oil industry and don’t realize there is another level available.

  • And finally, where can we purchase a copy of the book! 

The book is for sale on my website at www.copperstills.com for $44.95. Full cases of books may be purchased through the publisher at www.botannicals.com. It is also offered through many aromatherapy web-sites including NAHA.

About Ann Harman:

Ann Harman is an organic farmer who has been distilling plants for nearly two decades. Each year she teaches the Art of Distillation workshops, in addition to lecturing on hydrosols both nationally and internationally. Through her organization, Circle H Institute, she conducts research on hydrosols which she will one day lead us to a better understanding of these complex waters.

You can contact Ann through her website: www.botannicals.com

About Sharon Falsetto:

Sharon Falsetto is a UK-certified clinical aromatherapist who trained with Penny Price Aromatherapy. She has been living in the United States since 2006 and is the founder and owner of Sedona Aromatherapie. Sharon personally creates custom blends for individual requests, therapists, spas, weddings, and private label. She has written, and tutors, a home study aromatherapy certification program – including the 250 hours Certification in Professional Aromatherapy course – in addition to several shorter courses on making bath and body products; she is an approved education provider for NAHA, and an approved continuing education provider for NCBTMB. Sharon’s unique skill is professional writing, specifically for aromatherapy-related businesses, and she offers a professional writing service to this effect. She has written and edited books, e-books, articles, and website descriptions for both start-up and established aromatherapy businesses. Her aromatherapy book, Authentic Aromatherapy, was published in 2014. Sharon is the current chief editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal and a NAHA Director (Arizona).

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The Difference Between Eastern and Western Shea Butter

Posted on: May 4th, 2015 by
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Shea Butter and Shea Nuts: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Shea Butter and Shea Nuts: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Shea butter is a popular ingredient in aromatherapy products. However, there is a certain type of shea butter that is becoming more sought after for aromatherapy and skin care products; its name is nilotica shea butter. Here’s a quick look at the difference between nilotica shea butter and the western variety of shea butter.

Shea Tree Profile

Shea butter is obtained from the karite or shea (Vitellaria paradoxa, Butyrospermum parkii) tree, a member of the Sapotaceae plant family. It is a perennial tree that has plum-like fruits (nuts). Shea butter is the result of the cold pressing of the fruit; the whole extraction process is similar to that used to obtain cocoa butter in that the fruit is roasted, pounded and boiled in water before the shea butter is expressed in the form of a liquid that solidifies to a hard fat at room temperature.

Western Shea vs. Eastern Shea

Shea butter is traditionally extracted from from the fruits of the Vitellaria paradoxa species. These types of trees are native to the West African savanna region, hence the common name western shea butter (usually known as just shea butter).

Eastern shea butter, more commonly referred to as nilotica shea butter, is extracted from the fruits of the Vitellaria nilotica species, a sub-species of Vitellaria paradoxa. This tree species commonly grows in East Africa.

The Different Benefits of Shea Butter

While both types of shea butter contain components – such as stearic acid and oleic acid – that produce therapeutic moisturizing and lubricating properties for the skin, nilotica shea butter contains a higher percentage of olein acid than western shea butter. Olein acid is a naturally occurring glyceride of oleic acid. The result is that nilotica shea butter is both softer and creamier in texture than western shea butter. In addition, the aroma is slightly different.

Shea Butter for Skincare Products

Nilotica shea butter is considered the “luxury” shea butter product in comparison to western shea butter. It is richer and creamier, and more difficult to obtain. For the majority of your aromatherapy skincare products you will probably want to use the traditional type of shea butter and reserve nilotica shea butter for the special products. You could also replace a small quantity of western shea butter with nilotica shea butter in a recipe.

Learn How to Make Aromatherapy Products with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you would like to learn how to make your own aromatherapy skincare products, consider one of the Sedona Aromatherapie home study aromatherapy courses. Visit the courses home page to learn more.

References:

  • Price, Len, 1999, Carrier Oils for Aromatherapy and Massage, UK: Riverhead Publishing

  • Agbanga Karite website, Shea Butter Scientific Information, accessed May 4, 2015

  • Natural Sourcing website, Organic Nilotica Shea Butter, accessed May 4, 2015

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, published aromatherapy author, NAHA approved aromatherapy educator, aromatherapy business owner, and the Chief Editor for the NAHA Journal.

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Alternate Essential Oils for Beginners

Posted on: April 27th, 2015 by
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Essential Oils for Beginners: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Essential Oils for Beginners: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Essential oils are complex substances and, before you use an essential oil for the first time, you should understand both its potential benefit and the potential cautions associated with it. It can be confusing for the beginner to aromatherapy to know where you start. In addition to reading some quality aromatherapy books, it is advisable to take a course in aromatherapy to fully understand the subject of essential oils. Here are three alternate essential oils you may wish to consider as a beginner to aromatherapy.

Spearmint Essential Oil

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil is a popular essential oil that is often used by beginners to aromatherapy. However, peppermint essential oil actually contains some volatile chemical components and should not be used with, or in the vicinity of, babies and children under five years of age. Breathing difficulties may occur in the underdeveloped lungs of this age group. In addition, peppermint essential oil can cause sensitivity.

An alternative to peppermint essential oil is spearmint(Mentha spicata) essential oil. Spearmint essential oil has a less sharp aroma than peppermint essential oil, more reminiscent of a popular brand of chewing gum!Spearmint essential oil contains a less percentage of menthol, which causes possible sensitivity. Spearmint and peppermint essential oil have similar therapeutic properties. However, both essential oils should be avoided in pregnancy.

Rosalina Essential Oil

Rosalina (Melaleuca ericifolia) essential oil is a relatively new essential oil to the market but it can be used for similar purposes as tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil. As it contains more alcohols, it maybe more suitable for use with children. However, it is still potent enough to tackle symptoms of colds, flu, and respiratory problems.

Rosalina essential oil is not as common in usage as its more popular cousin, tea tree, but it can handle similar sorts of problems, and maybe a good alternative for beginners to aromatherapy.

Thyme Essential Oil

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a confusing essential oil for beginners; not only is it available in various chemotypes, but the plant produces two different types of thyme essential oil: white thyme and red thyme. White thyme essential oil (high in alcohols) is considered to be the more “gentle” essential oil and is probably the best essential oil for beginners to aromatherapy. One of the most popular white thyme essential oils that is high in alcohols is usually labeled as Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool and is one that I would recommend for beginners to aromatherapy. However, there are many different chemotypes of thyme; for further reading see Shirley and Len Price’s book, Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 4th Edition (2012), pp. 8 – 10.

Both white and red thyme essential oils have similar therapeutic properties.

Aromatherapy for Beginners

If you would like to learn more about essential oils, and how to use them both safely and correctly, consider one of the Sedona Aromatherapie home study aromatherapy courses. Visit the courses home page to learn more.

References:

  • Caddy, Rosemary, 1997, Essential Oils in Colour, UK: Amberwood Publishing Ltd

  • Falsetto, Sharon, 2014, Authentic Aromatherapy, US: Skyhorse Publishing

  • Lawless, Julia, 1995, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, UK: Thorsons

  • Price, Shirley, Price, Len, 2012, Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, UK: Churchill Livingstone

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, published aromatherapy author, an approved NAHA provider, an aromatherapy business owner, and Chief Editor of the NAHA Journal.

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Five Popular Herb Essential Oils

Posted on: April 20th, 2015 by
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Herbs as Essential Oils: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Herbs as Essential Oils: Photo Credit, Fotolia

Herbs are a popular plant to grow in the garden, whether you just have a sunny window ledge or a large yard. However, aside from their use for culinary dishes and teas, some herbs are also used as an essential oil. Here’s a quick look at five popular herb essential oils. Remember that plants have different uses as a herb (the whole plant part used) and as an essential oil (extracted from part of the plant).

Basil Essential Oil

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a small, annual herb with dark-green, ovate leaves and pink-white flowers. It is very aromatic. The flowering herb is steam distilled to produce an essential oil. Basil essential oil has a fresh, spicy, balsamic aroma. In the spring and summer months, it is particularly useful both as an insect repellent and for insect bites. In the fall and winter months, basil essential oil can be used for colds, flu, fever, infections, and coughs. Year round, use basil essential oil for muscle pain, rheumatism, anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

Cautions: Do not use basil essential oil in pregnancy. It may also cause skin sensitivity in some people.

Fennel Essential Oil

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a slightly larger perennial herb (growing up to six feet in height). It has distinct feathery leaves and umbels of yellow flowers. Fennel is very similar in appearance to dill (Anethum graveolens). Cultivated sweet fennel is the favored species for essential oil extraction, in comparison to bitter fennel (which is more toxic as an essential oil).

Fennel essential oil is steam distilled from the crushed seeds and it has a sweet, anise-like aroma. Use fennel essential oil for mature skin, oily skin, constipation, amenorrhea, rheumatism, nausea, flatulence, the menopause, and bruises.

Cautions: Do not use in pregnancy or in epilepsy. Use in moderation.

Oregano Essential Oil

Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a small perennial herb that can become bushy. It has dark-green, ovate leaves and pink-purple flowers. It is an ancient plant and a common species to be found in herb gardens.

Oregano produces a steam distilled essential oil from the flowering parts of the herb. It has a warm, spicy, herbaceous aroma. As an essential oil, it is often avoided in aromatherapy use because of its potential as a skin irritant. However, the essential oil is described as analgesic, antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, expectorant, and a stimulant and could be used to help a number of problems that present these conditions.

Cautions: Do not use during pregnancy. It can cause dermal and skin toxicity and irritation. Use in low dilution. Not recommended for the beginner to aromatherapy.

Peppermint Essential Oil

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a perennial herb that grows to about three feet in height. There are various species of peppermint but the plant is usually recognizable by its strong minty aroma.

Peppermint essential oil is steam distilled from the flowering herb and has a highly penetrating, camphoraceous, minty aroma. Use peppermint essential oil for acne, dermatitis, muscle pain, asthma, bronchitis, nausea, flatulence, colds, flu, fever, stress, mental tiredness, and fainting.

Cautions: Use in moderation. Possible skin sensitivity with some people. Do not use in pregnancy. Do not use with, or in the vicinity of, babies and children under the age of five years.

Thyme Essential Oil

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is often found in the herb garden as a companion to other plants. It is a small plant with purple or white flowers and aromatic leaves. Thyme is unique in that it can produce several chemotypes of thyme essential oil from essentially the same plant – depending upon growing location and environmental factors.

In addition, thyme leaves and flowering tops are steam distilled to first produce a “red” thyme oil, and then re-distilled to produce “white” thyme oil. Red thyme essential oil is warm, powerful, and spicy in aroma whereas white thyme oil is sweet, mild, and green in aroma. Use thyme essential oil for acne, dermatitis, eczema, insect bites, arthritis, muscle pain, gout, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, colds, flu, infections, insomnia, and stress.

Cautions: Do not use with high blood pressure. Possible skin sensitivity with some people. Choose white thyme essential oil for more gentle use.

Learn More About Essential Oils with Sedona Aromatherapie

Learn more about essential oils, such as those described in this post, with one of the Sedona Aromatherapie home study aromatherapy courses; visit the courses home page to learn more!

References:

  • Falsetto, Sharon, 2014, Authentic Aromatherapy, US: Skyhorse Publishing

  • Lawless, Julia, 1995, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, UK: Thorsons

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, published aromatherapy author, approved NAHA aromatherapy educator, aromatherapy business owner, and Chief Editor of the NAHA Journal.

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Essential Oils for Yoga and Meditation

Posted on: April 13th, 2015 by
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Essential Oils for Yoga: Photo Credit, istockphoto

Essential Oils for Yoga: Photo Credit, istockphoto

Certain essential oils can be used both in yoga and for meditation practice in an attempt to calm both the mind and the body, in addition to focusing your thoughts. This practice is not a “new” invention; many scents have been used for centuries, in the form of incense and oils, by various civilizations and religions for prayer and meditation time. Here’s a closer look at how you can use essential oils in your modern day practice of yoga and meditation.

A Note on Using Essential Oils for Yoga and Meditation

It is my intent, in this particular post, to discuss the use of essential oils for yoga and meditation interchangeably. I am focusing on the same aspects to address within yoga and meditation practice; that is, an attempt to slow down your racing thoughts, focus on your breathing, ground yourself, and improve your concentration level by doing so. This post is by no way intended to substitute medical advice and should be used simply as a starting point for your yoga and meditation practice. I have written it from my personal point of view and use – which may, or may not, work for you as well.

How to Use Essential Oils for Yoga and Meditation

There are a couple of ways in which you can use essential oils for yoga and meditation. The primary, and probably most effective way, is to diffuse essential oils. Depending upon your practice, and the space you have, you might want to consider one of the following ways to do this:

  • Use an aromatherapy diffuser and gently diffuse an appropriate essential oil into the atmosphere. Always ask first if you are sharing the space with others.

  • Use an aromatherapy roll-on applicator, or balm stick (as discussed in my book Authentic Aromatherapy), and apply a small amount of the blend to your pulse points before starting – such as wrists, temple, and/or forehead. The essential oils should always be diluted in an oil or balm base before applying to the skin.

  • Light a true aromatherapy candle with the essential oil blend you require and gently burn in the practice area. Again, ask first if you are sharing the space with others.

Suitable Essential Oils for Yoga and Meditation

The following essential oils have been chosen by me for yoga and meditation practice based on their perceived therapeutic properties and aroma:

  • Vetiver (Vetiveria zizaniodes) – A deep smoky, earthy aroma with calming and sedative properties.

  • Sandalwood (Santalum album) – A deep balsamic, woody aroma with sedative and anti-depressant properties. Note that Santalum album is now an endangered species and you may prefer to choose another species because of this. The aroma of each species may vary.

  • Frankincense (Boswellia carteri) – A deep, spicy, balsamic aroma with the ability to slow and deepen breathing. It has traditionally been used in meditation and prayer because of this (Lawless, 1995). Note that Boswellia carteri is now an endangered species and you may prefer to choose another species because of this. The aroma of each species may vary.

  • Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) – A warm, woody aroma with sedative properties.

  • Hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) – A fresh, balsamic, fruity aroma “opening and elevating though grounding – excellent for yoga and meditation” (Lawless, 1995).

  • Citrus essential oils – if you want to improve your focus in your yoga and meditation practice, try combining the above essential oils with a citrus essential oil such as lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). These particular essential oils may help to provide clarity to your session.

Learn More About Essential Oils with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you are interested in learning more about how to use essential oils in your life, consider one of the Sedona Aromatherapie home study courses. To learn more, visit the courses home page.

References:

  • Falsetto, Sharon, 2014, Authentic Aromatherapy, US: Skyhorse Publishing

  • Lawless, Julia, 1995, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, UK: Thorsons

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, an approved NAHA aromatherapy educator, a published aromatherapy author, an aromatherapy business owner, and Chief Editor of the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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