Pelargoniums and Geraniums for Aromatic Use

Posted on: July 25th, 2016 by
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Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium): Photo Copyright: Sharon Falsetto, All Rights Reserved

Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium): Photo Copyright: Sharon Falsetto, All Rights Reserved

Geranium is one of my favorite essential oils in aromatherapy use – and also one of my favorite plants in the garden! I find that it grows well here in northern Arizona, and the rose-like scent of the leaves is always a welcome gift as you brush by it on a hot, summer day. I even manage to keep it growing throughout the winter months on my covered porch – in pots, of course.

When you use the English name, geranium, you have to be clear whether you are referring to the Pelargonium species, or the plant known as Robert geranium. They are both very different plants – with different uses. Here’s a quick look at these two plants and their aromatic uses.

Pelargonium graveolens

The common botanical name for (rose) geranium is Pelargonium graveolens; the botanical name refers to the Pelargonium genus of flowering plants which includes about 200 species of perennials, shrubs, and succulents. To create greater confusion, in aromatherapy use, there is a sometimes a distinction between geranium essential oil and rose geranium essential oil. Rose geranium essential oil can simply refer to a particular species of geranium essential oil – or it can be a distilled mix of geranium and rose essential oils.

Geranium robertianum

Robert geranium, or herb Robert, is known by the botanical name of Geranium robertianum and belongs to the Geranium genus of approximately 422 species of flowering perennial, annual, and biennial plants, also referred to by the name of cranesbill. Robert geranium has medicinal properties (albeit different to those of the aromatic essential oil extracted from Pelargonium graveolens). It is used in the practice of homeopathy.

The Origin of the Confusion Between Geraniums and Pelargoniums

Both plant genera are of the botanical family of Geraniaceae; however, when plants were originally classified by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, both plant species were classified into one genus, that of Geranium. In 1789, French botanist, Charles Louis L’Heritier de Brutelle, separated each genus into individual plant genera. Although members of the Pelargonium genus are often referred to as Pelargonium, many people still use the older common name of Geranium.

Origins of the (Rose) Geranium

The Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) is native to South Africa but the genus of Pelargonium is native to the Mediterranean and the Middle East too. Rose geraniums were popular in England, firstly with the upper classes when conservatories were first introduced; rose geraniums later gained wider popularity in the 19th century as potted rose geraniums, grown on cottage windowsills. Today, you will find them in many gardens throughout the world.

Geranium Essential Oil

Geranium essential oil is distilled in many places of the world including from plants grown in Egypt and South Africa. Rose geranium also produces a hydrosol – a product which can be home distilled from the plant with the right equipment.

The essential oil of rose geranium is extracted by steam distillation of the leaves and the essential oil is commonly used in aromatherapy. Both the essential oil and the hydrosol have a green, rose-like scent, which varies slightly in pronunciation depending upon where the origin plant was grown and when it was harvested.

Geranium essential oil is a versatile essential oil and can be used for skincare, stress, anxiety, menstrual and menopausal problems in women, teenage acne, and insect bites. It is a “gentle” oil and can be used safely with babies, children, and seniors, with the correct application and dilution rate.

The Characteristics of (Rose) Geranium

The original Pelargonium of South Africa had small leaves and pink flowers; today, there are many cultivations of Pelargoniums, flowering in a variety of colors including pink, red, white, and purple. The leaves of rose geranium are rose-scented, although some species of Pelargoniums have scented flowers too, such as Pelargonium gibbosum and Pelargonium triste. Pelargonium graveolens is a perennial shrub, which usually flowers in the summer months and sometimes in the Fall; many Pelargonium species are now cultivated as annuals.

The Characteristics of Robert Geranium

Robert geranium, or herb Robert (Geranium robertianum) is an annual or biennial plant growing to approximately one foot in height; it is found at elevations of up to 4,900 feet. Robert geranium grows in Europe, North America, North Africa and most of Asia; it has small, symmetrical pink flowers which bloom from May to October and it is found in habitats of forest, clearings, scrub, and walls.

Medicinal Uses of Robert Geranium

Robert geranium has the active ingredients of bitters, tannins, and essential oils. It has traditionally been used to treat toothache and nosebleeds and it is used in the practice of homeopathy to treat internal bleeding. Robert Geranium has diuretic properties too and has been used as a mouth antiseptic and gargle.

Learn More About Aromatic Plants with Sedona Aromatherapie

Learn more about the similarities and differences in plant species such as geranium with a course from the Sedona Aromatherapie Linguistics of Aromatics Home Study Program.

References:

  • Lawless, Julia 2001 The Aromatherapy Garden London, UK: Kyle Cathie Ltd

  • Podlech, Dieter 2001 Herbs and Healing Plants of Britain and Europe UK: Collins (Collins Nature Guides)

  • Author is a 20 year veteran in the health care and aromatherapy industry, a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, a consultant, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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How to Make Vanilla-infused Aromatherapy Oil

Posted on: July 18th, 2016 by
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Vanilla-infused aromatherapy oil is relatively easy to make. However, there are a couple of ways to make it, and you may prefer one method over the other. Vanilla is an aroma that is often requested in aromatherapy blends, when blending for fragrance, so I recently experimented with two different ways of making vanilla-infused aromatherapy oil. Here’s a quick post on my results!

Vanilla Absolute and Vanilla CO2 Extraction

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is available as an absolute and CO2 extraction (also called an essential oil) for aromatherapy bath and body products. It is usually solvent extracted from the vanilla bean to produce vanilla absolute – or extracted by CO2, to produce a vanilla CO2 extraction. Make sure that you don’t purchase a folded vanilla oil for aromatherapy purposes, as this type of oil has been chemically altered.

However, if you want to experiment with a different way to add vanilla into your aromatherapy bath and body products, you might want to make an vanilla-infused aromatherapy oil.

Vanilla-infused Oil with Vanilla Beans

One of the easiest ways to infuse vanilla into oil is to add vanilla beans to a base oil and heat it up on the stove top. Personally, I prefer to use jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) as my base, as it has no aroma and it has an indefinite shelf life.

The amount of vanilla beans to use will vary. However, I have found that if you want a slight vanilla aroma, using three to four vanilla beans in 4 oz of jojoba should work. Simply split the vanilla bean with a knife down the middle and empty the vanilla into the jojoba. Then, chop up the outer casing of the vanilla bean, into smaller pieces, and add those to the jojoba as well. Stir the vanilla beans into the jojoba and add the mixture to a heat-proof pot on the stove. Simmer on low heat (as low as you can get it; you do not want to boil the oil) for 3 hours per day. Repeat the process for several days until you are happy with the aroma. Take care not to burn, or overcook, the oil.

Point to Note: I have found that the vanilla aroma is not as potent as when mixing vanilla absolute or vanilla CO2 extraction to an aromatherapy blend, but it is a more economical way of making a blend, and a more successful blending process if your base product is an oil, and if you don’t want a strong vanilla aroma in the blend. It will also depend on which other essential oils/absolutes you are mixing with the blend.

Vanilla-infused Oil with Vanilla Oleoresin

The next method, for making vanilla-infused aromatherapy oil, requires the purchase of vanilla oleoresin. This method is simpler but the process is longer – in time, not work.

Once you’ve purchased the vanilla oleoresin, you will need to add it to your oil base; for example, jojoba. I simply added a small amount of the oleoresin to 4 oz glass bottle of jojoba. I then placed the bottle in a cool, dark place and left it for a week to infuse. The result was a fragrant, vanilla, jojoba oil, suitable for using on its own, combined with other essential oils, or added to an aromatherapy bath and body product base.

Learn More About Aromatherapy Oils with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you would like to learn more about making and using aromatherapy oils, consider the Sedona Aromatherapie Home Study Linguistics of AromaticsTM Program. To learn more, visit the courses home page!

References:

  • Author is a 20 year veteran in the health care and aromatherapy industry, a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, a consultant, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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What is an Essential Oil Chemotype?

Posted on: July 11th, 2016 by
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Chemotypes of Herbs for Essential Oils

Chemotypes of Herbs for Essential Oils

Essential oil chemotypes are produced from the same plant species but have different chemical components; they usually have different therapeutic properties for aromatherapy practice. Put simply, essential oil chemotypes are extracted from plants that belong to the same genus and species; the difference is in the internal appearance, not the external appearance, of the plant.

Essential oils extracted from the same plant species may look the same but chemically they are different. It is important to correctly identify both the plant species and the chemotype of an essential oil before using it for therapeutic purposes in aromatherapy in order to know how to use it; here’s a quick look at some of the common chemotypes of essential oils.

Essential Oil Chemotypes

An essential oil chemotype is derived from a plant that has the same visual appearance and characteristics but it is chemically composed of differing components. An essential oil chemotype has different therapeutic properties due to the presence of different chemical components; for example, one chemotype may have a higher content of alcohols compared to another chemotype that may have a high content of phenols. Chemotypes are present in both wild and cultivated plants.

Describing an Essential Oil Chemotype

Plants are more correctly identified through the use of the botanical classification system, and not the often confusing common English name. For example, rosemary is classified as Rosmarinus officinalis; to correctly identify the chemotype of rosemary the abbreviation ct. is used, followed by the chemical constituent that makes up the particular chemotype. Therefore “camphor” rosemary essential oil is correctly identified as Rosmarinus officinalis ct. camphor. Other rosemary essential oil chemotypes include:

  • Rosmarinus officinalis ct. cineole: high in the chemical component 1,8 cineole.

  • Rosmarinus officinalis ct. verbenone: high in the chemical components verbenone and pinene.

Why Plant Species Produce Different Chemotypes

Plant species produce different chemotypes for various reasons. Factors that may affect the production of essential oil chemotypes include:

  • wild plant species may naturally cross-pollinate

  • the elevation at which a plant is grown

  • the growing conditions of the plant

  • climate

  • other environmental factors.

Lamiaceae Plant Family Chemotypes

The Lamiaceae plant family contains many essential oil chemotypes. These include:

  • Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): As described above.

  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): ct. thymol, ct. linalool, ct. carvacrol, ct. thujanol-4, ct. geraniol, ct. terpineol.

  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum): ct. eugenol, ct. linalool, ct.estragole.

  • Sage (Salvia officinalis): ct. cineole, ct.thujone.

  • Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis): ct. citral, ct.citronellal.1

In addition to the Lamiaceae plant family chemotypes, other plant families also have essential oil chemotypes; for example, valerian (Valeriana officinalis): ct. valeranone, ct. valeranal, ct. cryptofuranol.1

Plant Species vs. Chemotypes

Finally, don’t be confused by plant species, genus, and chemotypes. For example, the lavender(Lavandula) species produces at least three different genus that are used in aromatherapy:

  • true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

  • lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia)

  • spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia).

Although these plants (and subsequent essential oils) are made up of differing chemical components, they are not chemotypes; although they are extracted from the same species, they are not extracted from the same plant genus.

Learn More About Essential Oils with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you would like to learn more about essential oils, consider the Sedona Aromatherapie home study aromatherapy program: Linguistics of Aromatics.TM To learn more, visit the courses home page!

References:

  1. Price, Shirley & Price, Len 2012 Aromatherapy for Health Professionals UK: Churchill Livingstone

  • Author is a 20 year veteran in the health care and aromatherapy industry, a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, a consultant, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

Other Reading:

  • Clarke, Sue 2008 Essential Chemistry for Aromatherapy UK: Churchill Livingstone

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Aromatic Herbaceous Plants and Oils

Posted on: July 4th, 2016 by
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Aromatic Herbs for Aromatherapy

Aromatic Herbs for Aromatherapy

Herbaceous plants are common in aromatherapy use. But when you hear someone talk about a herbaceous plant are they talking about a true herbaceous plant, or simply describing a herb – which, by the way, is a herbaceous plant, just to confuse you further!

Many herbs are used medicinally, aromatically, and in culinary dishes, whereas other herbaceous plants are not. Here’s a brief look at understanding aromatic herbaceous plants and oils; herbaceous plants not used in the practice of aromatherapy are not mentioned here.

A Herb as Used in Aromatherapy and Herbalism

In general, a herb is usually a plant that is used in medicine – for example, in aromatherapy and/or herbalism – or aromatically in perfumery, or as a flavoring agent in cooking.

A herb has leaves, flowers, and/or seeds. The leaves or flowers – either fresh or dried – are used as a “herb” in herbalism and cooking. In aromatherapy and natural perfumery, the relevant plant part is distilled for its (essential) oil, absolute and/or extract. Some herbs are infused in a carrier oil base to produce an infused oil. Herbs have historically been used for such purposes for centuries and were in common usage during ancient Egyptian times. There are records of the use of herbs in many ancient Egyptian documents, including the Ebers Papyrus (1550 B.C.).

Herbs are often categorized via their common use; for example, medicinal or culinary. However, some herbs fall into more than one category of use. Herbs such as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are used medicinally, in culinary dishes and for perfumery purposes. Other examples of common herbs include:

  • dill (Anethum graveolens)

  • oregano (Origanum vulgare)

  • coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

  • mint (Mentha spp.)

  • parsley (Petroselinum sativum)

  • helichrysum (Helichrysum angustifolium)

  • ginger (Zingiber officinale).*

*Note: Ginger is classed as a “spice” for culinary purposes.

Sometimes, in the practice of aromatherapy and herbalism, the word herb is used for plants that are neither herbs or herbaceous plants. Finally, the word herb is often (but not always) used as a synonym for herbaceous plant.

A Herbaceous Plant as Defined Botanically

A herbaceous plant is an annual, biennial, or perennial plant with flowers and/or leaves. It differs from a woody plant in that the stems are soft and usually green in color; a herbaceous plant is “the term given to any plant that does not form a persistent woody stem.”1

The leaves of a herbaceous plant (above ground) die at the end of the growing season. Annual herbaceous plants do not re-grow from the same plant; as annual plants only live for one year, all annual plants can be described as herbaceous. Biennial and perennial herbaceous plants have living underground stems that lay dormant until the next growing season.

Examples of herbaceous plants which are used in aromatherapy and herbalism include:

  • carrot (Daucus carota)

  • mint (Mentha spp.)*

  • sage (Salvia spp.)*

  • sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

  • palmarosa (Cymbogon martinni)

  • honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.).

*Examples of both a common herb and a herbaceous plant.

Herbaceous as a Descriptor in Aromatherapy and Perfumery

In the study of aromatherapy and perfumery, aromatic plants and oils are often classified into “groups” or “categories” which describe their scent. In aromatherapy, a herbaceous aroma is “an aroma that is reminiscent of herbs.”2 Herbaceous, or herbal, aromas include:

  • fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)

  • basil (Ocimum basilicum)

  • lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

  • oregano (Origanum vulgare)

  • angelica (Angelica archangelica).

Learn More About Herbs and Herbaceous Plants with Sedona Aromatherapie

This article is a brief introduction to how herbs and herbaceous plants are used and described in aromatherapy. If you would like to learn more about aromatic plants, consider the Sedona Aromatherapie Linguistics of AromaticsTM Home Study Program!

References:

  1. Texas Tech University website, Herbaceous Plant ID Lab, accessed July 4, 2016

  2. Sedona Aromatherapie LLC, Linguistics of AromaticsTM Study Program

  • Lawless, Julia, 1995, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism UK: Thorsons

  • Author is a 20 year veteran in the health care and aromatherapy industry, a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, a consultant, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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Hydrosol Recipes for Hot Summer Days

Posted on: June 27th, 2016 by
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Cooling Mint, Cucumber, and Lemon-Like Aromas for Summer: Photo Credit: DreamstimeAs the southwestern United States hit record temperatures this past week, including here in Sedona, Arizona, I revisited a post I had written a few years ago about essential oil recipes for hot days. I decided to update that post with the addition of some hydrosol recipes. These particular hydrosols should help to keep you cool during those hot summer days which – if predictions are correct for future summers – will only increase in frequency.

Hydrosol Cooling Spray

All hydrosols are water based so, by their very nature, are in fact “cooling.” However, some types of hydrosols provide more “cooling” benefits than others; they can be used on their own or combined with others. Here are a few of my suggestions for cooling hydrosol sprays:

  • Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) – peppermint provides a refreshing, minty boost on a hot day.

  • Melissa (Melissa officinalis) – melissa, also known as lemon balm, givens a light lemon-y lift, without being too overpowering.

  • Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) – reminiscent of a herbal garden, there is a reason why people express the phrase, “cool as a cucumber…”

  • Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) – cornflower hydrosol is recommended for women with hot flashes in menopause; say no more….

  • Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) – lavender is always a great “go to” if you don’t have another hydrosol available, as it covers almost every situation and problem.

Summer Spritzer Hydrosol Combo

If you are looking to make a custom blend of cooling hydrosol spray, try this quick and easy recipe:

  • 4 oz spray bottle

  • 1 oz peppermint hydrosol*

  • 2 oz melissa hydrosol

  • 0.5 oz cucumber hydrosol

  • 0.5 oz lavender hydrosol

* Avoid use with children under three years of age.

  • Simply combine all of the hydrosols in the spray bottle and apply as needed.

Hydrosol Cooling Compress

Another welcome relief on a hot day is the use of a cooling compress on your forehead, back of the neck, or top of the head. This is also a helpful method for those suffering from headaches or migraines.

Simply combine a mix of your chosen hydrosols in a 4 oz spray bottle. Completely spray a small wash cloth, or towel, with the hydrosol spray. Fold the wash cloth or towel into a “bandana” style shape, and place on the back of the neck, forehead, or the top of your head until you feel cooler.

Hydrosol Ice Cubes

As hydrosols are water-based, you can freeze some of your favorite hydrosols in a conventional ice cube tray in the freezer. If you are looking to apply that “extra bit of cool,” or need to cool down in a hurry, hydrosol ice cubes are the way to go. Use them in combination with a compress for instant relief from the heat.

Learn More About Hydrosols with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you would like to learn more about how to use hydrosols and essential oils safely, consider taking the Linguistics of AromaticsTM Program!

References:

  • Author is a 20 year veteran in the health care and aromatherapy industry, a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, a consultant, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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Fragrant Roses for an Aromatherapy Garden

Posted on: June 20th, 2016 by
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Old Garden Roses are Usually More Fragrant than Modern Garden Roses: Photo Copyright Sharon Falsetto, All Rights Reserved

Old Garden Roses are Usually More Fragrant than Modern Garden Roses: Photo Copyright Sharon Falsetto, All Rights Reserved

Rose has always enjoyed popularity, both as a flower and as a perfume. It has been coveted by many throughout the centuries especially for its aphrodisiac properties; Cleopatra seduced Mark Anthony with the scent of rose, and the Romans threw lavish parties and banquets in honor of the rose.

However, the rose of the past is not necessarily the rose of the future, as the species has been “perfected” and “fine tuned” along the way in search of the “best possible” rose. Unfortunately, this has resulted in many of today’s rose species losing their heady fragrance, or it has significantly reduced it. Perfectionism in flower color and shape has resulted in lack of perfectionism in scent. If you are looking for scented roses for your aromatherapy garden – and even wish to distill or macerate the petals for oils – here’s some of the rose species you might prefer to invest in.

The Roots of Traditional Garden Roses

Traditional, or old garden roses as they are commonly known as, are some of the most fragrant species of roses and were popular in European cottage country gardens before the introduction and development of modern garden roses and David Austin (English) roses. The botany of an old garden rose is also different to other species of roses.

Old garden rose species are deemed to be those rose species and cultivars which were introduced prior to 1867 and the advent of the modern rose species. Old garden roses were either of European or Mediterranean origin or of East Asian origin, commonly known as China and Tea roses. China and Tea roses were introduced to Europe around 1800 which led to new classifications and the introduction of new rose cultivars.

Old garden rose species are usually more hardy and disease resistant than most of the modern rose species – and old garden roses are also extremely fragrant. Most rose species have five petals (which are then divided into lobes). Old garden roses have smaller blooms than modern garden roses, which are often described as “cabbage-like.” Modern garden roses tend to be “double-headed” — it’s all about size and showmanship more than scent. Old garden rose species are available in many different colors including pastels of pink, yellow, purple, red and white; modern garden roses are usually more vivid in color.

Old Garden Roses for a Scented Garden

European old garden rose species have traditionally been the most fragrant, although not the most vibrant in color, of garden roses. This makes them preferable for aromatherapy purposes! Many bloom just once (unlike modern garden rose species) so timing is everything to collect plant material for distilling and maceration.

The following species are recognizable in the aromatherapy world as plant material for oil:

  • Rosa alba – usually white or pale pink in color with a light scent; known as the “White Rose of Shakespeare.”

  • Rosa x damascena (damask) – an ancient Syrian rose which is believed to have arrived in Europe in the latter part of the thirteenth century; blooms in shades from white to pink.

  • Rosa centifolia – a cross of damask and alba roses, of Dutch origin, and often known as “cabbage rose”; available in shades of pink and lavender.

  • Rosa gallica (Gallic) – blooms in shades of red and purple; popular in the herb gardens of Medieval monasteries.

  • Rosa rugosa (Chinese) – native to eastern Asia, parts of China, and Japan. It blooms in shades of dark pink or white. It is commonly used to extract rosehip oil, but there is also an essential oil steam distilled from the petals for perfumery purposes.

Other Types of Fragrant Old Garden Roses

China roses arrived in Europe in the late eighteenth century and formed the basis of today’s modern hybrid garden roses. Traditional China roses had less fragrance than traditional European old garden roses, had smaller blooms, and were not as hardy – but they did bloom repeatedly during summer and fall months, unlike many European old garden roses.

Tea roses arrived in Europe around the beginning of the nineteenth century, also from the Orient. Tea roses were similar to China roses as they flowered repeatedly, possessed similar fragrances and were less hardy than traditional European old garden roses. However, Tea roses were often more desirable than China roses because of the botanic make-up of their flower heads.

Tea roses were crossed with Bourbon and Noisette roses to produce yet more desirable rose hybrids. Bourbon roses were the result of a cross between damask and China roses and appeared in the island of Bourbon (Reunion) in the nineteenth century. Bourbon roses were popular in France and were very fragrant. They had a range of blooms of white, pink, and red. Noisette roses were introduced to France by Philippe Noisette in the early nineteenth century. Noisette roses originally had small blooms but later rose hybrids resulted in larger flowers.

Roses for Aromatherapy Use

This introduction to fragrant roses for an aromatherapy garden demonstrates that not only are there several traditional, scented rose species, but each rose species produces a different essential oil, hydrosol, or macerated oil. Check the description for each product before purchasing (or extracting) for its aromatic uses – and the preferred rose fragrance!

Learn More About Aromatherapy with Sedona Aromatherapie

If you have enjoyed this article, and would like to learn more about plants and how they are used in aromatherapy, consider the Sedona Aromatherapie Home Study Program: Linguistics of AromaticsTM.

References:

  • University of Illinois Extension Our Rose Garden web site,Different Kinds of Roses, accessed June 20, 2016

  • University of Illinois Extension Our Rose Garden web site, The History of Roses, accessed June 20, 2016

  • Author is a UK-certified aromatherapist, published author in aromatherapy, an approved education provider for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA), an aromatherapy business owner, and Chief Editor for the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal.

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